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Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Publication_Date: 200509
Title:
Historical North Atlantic Hurricane Tracks - Major Storms with Landfall in the United States, 1851-2004
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: National Atlas of the United States
Online_Linkage:
<http://nationalatlas.gov/atlasftp.html?openChapters=chpclim#chpclim>
Description:
Abstract:
This Historical North Atlantic Hurricane Tracks file of major storms with landfall in the United States contains the six-hourly (0000, 0600, 1200, 1800 UTC) center locations and intensities for all northern Atlantic major storms from 1851 through 2004. Major storms are those that made landfall in the United States and that were classified on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale as Category 3, 4, or 5 at the time of landfall. Landfalling storms are defined as those storms whose center is reported to have either crossed or passed directly adjacent to the United States coastline, and which came ashore with tropical storm intensity or greater (sustained surface winds of 34 knots or 39 miles per hour or greater). In 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003 there were no major landfalling hurricanes. This a replacement for the January 2005 map layer distributed as Historical North Atlantic Hurricane Tracks - Major Storms with Landfall in the United States, 1851-2003.
Purpose:
These data are intended for geographic display and analysis at the national level, and for large regional areas. The data should be displayed and analyzed at scales appropriate for 1:2,000,000-scale data. No responsibility is assumed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the National Atlas of the United States in the use of these data.
Supplemental_Information:
An ASCII format version of the Historical Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Tracks file is available at <http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/tracks1851to2004_atl.txt>. The ASCII file contains the source information from which the file of major landfalling storms was drawn.

For more information on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, please see <http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/aboutsshs.shtml>.

For more information on tropical cyclone advisories, please see <http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/HAW2/english/forecast/forecast_products.shtml>.

General information on subtropical and tropical cyclones is available from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Atlantic 0 Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division FAQ page at <http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/tcfaqHED.html>, and from the National Hurricane Center Hurricane Basics page at <http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/HAW2/english/basics.shtml>.

Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 18510625
Ending_Date: 20041205
Currentness_Reference: Ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: Annually
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -107.0
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -15.0
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 60.2
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 8.5
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: Hurricanes
Theme_Keyword: Historical hurricanes
Theme_Keyword: Hurricane tracks
Theme_Keyword: Historical hurricane tracks
Theme_Keyword: Tropical storms
Theme_Keyword: Tropical depressions
Theme_Keyword: Major hurricanes
Theme_Keyword: Intense hurricanes
Theme_Keyword: Tropical storm tracks
Theme_Keyword: Historical tropical cyclone tracks
Theme_Keyword: Tropical cyclones
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: Atlantic
Place_Keyword: North Atlantic Basin
Place_Keyword: Gulf of Mexico
Place_Keyword: Caribbean Sea
Place_Keyword: Alabama
Place_Keyword: Alaska
Place_Keyword: Arizona
Place_Keyword: Arkansas
Place_Keyword: California
Place_Keyword: Colorado
Place_Keyword: Connecticut
Place_Keyword: Delaware
Place_Keyword: District of Columbia
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: Georgia
Place_Keyword: Hawaii
Place_Keyword: Idaho
Place_Keyword: Illinois
Place_Keyword: Indiana
Place_Keyword: Iowa
Place_Keyword: Kansas
Place_Keyword: Kentucky
Place_Keyword: Louisiana
Place_Keyword: Maine
Place_Keyword: Maryland
Place_Keyword: Massachusetts
Place_Keyword: Michigan
Place_Keyword: Minnesota
Place_Keyword: Mississippi
Place_Keyword: Missouri
Place_Keyword: Montana
Place_Keyword: Nebraska
Place_Keyword: Nevada
Place_Keyword: New Hampshire
Place_Keyword: New Jersey
Place_Keyword: New Mexico
Place_Keyword: New York
Place_Keyword: North Carolina
Place_Keyword: North Dakota
Place_Keyword: Ohio
Place_Keyword: Oklahoma
Place_Keyword: Oregon
Place_Keyword: Pennsylvania
Place_Keyword: Rhode Island
Place_Keyword: South Carolina
Place_Keyword: South Dakota
Place_Keyword: Tennessee
Place_Keyword: Texas
Place_Keyword: Utah
Place_Keyword: Vermont
Place_Keyword: Virginia
Place_Keyword: Washington
Place_Keyword: West Virginia
Place_Keyword: Wisconsin
Place_Keyword: Wyoming
Place_Keyword: Puerto Rico
Place_Keyword: U.S. Virgin Islands

Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
None. Acknowledgement of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center and (or) the National Atlas of the United States of America would be appreciated in products derived from these data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: NOAA Coastal Services Center
Contact_Position: Clearinghouse Manager
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and physical address
Address: 2234 South Hobson Avenue
City: Charleston
State_or_Province: SC
Postal_Code: 29405-2413
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 843-740-1200
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 843-740-1315
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: clearinghouse@csc.noaa.gov
Hours_of_Service: Monday - Friday 8:00 AM - 5:00 PM Eastern Time
Native_Data_Set_Environment: Formatted ASCII text file

Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Publication_Date: 200509
Title: Historical North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Tracks, 1851-2004
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: National Atlas of the United States
Online_Linkage:
<http://nationalatlas.gov/atlasftp.html?openChapters=chpclim#chpclim>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Publication_Date: 200509
Title:
Historical Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Tracks, 1949-2004
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: National Atlas of the United States
Online_Linkage:
<http://nationalatlas.gov/atlasftp.html?openChapters=chpclim#chpclim>


Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Specific accuracy information can be found in Neumann, C.J., B.R. Jarvinen, C.J. McAdie and G.R. Hammer, 1999: Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871-1999 (fifth revision). NCDC/NHC Historical Climatology Series 6-2, pp.11-14. Similar standards and techniques were applied to the post-1999 data.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Over-water portions of storm tracks before 1944 are subject to considerable uncertainties. Aircraft reconnaissance of storms near critical areas was introduced in 1944, and continuous weather satellite surveillance was introduced in the mid-1960s. These two developments mean that more recent storm records have a higher degree of accuracy than those prior to 1944. No tests for logical consistency have been performed on this map layer.
Completeness_Report:
This map layer contains all known Atlantic Basin (Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, and North Atlantic Ocean) major hurricanes that made landfall in the United States and that occurred between 1851 and 2004. Major landfalling hurricanes are those that were classified on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale as Category 3, 4, or 5 at the time of landfall. In 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003 there were no major landfalling hurricanes.

Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Over-water portions of storm tracks before 1944 are subject to considerable uncertainties. Aircraft reconnaissance of storms near critical areas was introduced in 1944, and continuous weather satellite surveillance was introduced in the mid-1960s. These two developments allow a high degree of probability that more recent storm center locations were determined with a reasonable degree of accuracy.
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Publication_Date: 200503
Title: Atlantic Tracks File 1851-2004
Edition: 2004
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Table
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Miami, FL
Publisher: NOAA Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Online_Linkage: <http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pastall.shtml>
Type_of_Source_Media: Online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1851
Ending_Date: 2004
Source_Currentness_Reference: Ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: ATL_2004
Source_Contribution: Spatial and attribute information.

Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: National Atlas of the United States
Publication_Date: 200509
Title: Historical North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Tracks, 1851-2004
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: National Atlas of the United States
Online_Linkage:
<http://nationalatlas.gov/atlasftp.html?openChapters=chpclim#chpclim>
Type_of_Source_Media: Online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1851
Ending_Date: 2004
Source_Currentness_Reference: Ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Atlas-hurall04
Source_Contribution: Spatial and attribute information

Process_Step:
Process_Description:
To create Atlas-hurall04 from ATL_2004, historical track information was downloaded from the National Hurricane Center's Web site. The ASCII text file was formatted into an Arc/INFO table using AML. The INFO table was then processed into a generate file and an attribute table that were converted into an attributed cover.

Location points are recorded every six hours. Each recorded point was associated with a unique line that extends from that point to the next recorded point. Small line segments, approximately 0.0001 degree long, were added to the end of each storm track to retain the final collection point's information. In the source data, tracks that crossed the 0-degree longitude line had negative longitude values even in the eastern hemisphere. These longitude values were converted to the corresponding positive longitude values.

A limit in the processing software will not allow duplicate points, so where a storm stood still longer than the six-hour collection interval, the next location point was offset approximately 0.0001 degrees to retain relevant information.

During the process of creating Atlas-hurall04, information on landfalling storms was extracted to an INFO table. This information was joined to Atlas-hurall04 and used to extract landfalling major hurricanes, which are those that made landfall as category 3 or higher.

The cover was converted into a shapefile and an SDTS-formatted file.

Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: ATL_2004
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Atlas-hurall04
Process_Date: 200509


Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Vector
Point_and_Vector_Object_Information:
SDTS_Terms_Description:
SDTS_Point_and_Vector_Object_Type: String
Point_and_Vector_Object_Count: 4056


Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 0.1
Longitude_Resolution: 0.1
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal degrees
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: GRS1980
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.0
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257222


Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Major hurricane tracks (described by Hurmjrl020.dbf)
Entity_Type_Definition:
The path followed by the center of a major landfalling hurricane. A major landfalling hurricane is one that made landfall in the United States and that was classified on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale as a Category 3, 4, or 5 hurricane at the time of landfall. A hurricane is a warm-core tropical cyclone in which the maximum sustained surface wind is 64 knots/74 mph or more. A landfalling storm is defined as a storm whose center is reported to have either crossed or passed directly adjacent to the United States coastline, and which came ashore with tropical storm intensity or greater.
Entity_Type_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Shape
Attribute_Definition: The representation of the entity in the data.
Attribute_Definition_Source: National Atlas of the United States
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Polyline
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
1-dimensional element that may or may not surround a 2- dimensional element.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: ESRI GIS software
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Fnode#
Attribute_Definition: Internal sequence number of the from-node.
Attribute_Definition_Source: National Atlas of the United States
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 0
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Tnode#
Attribute_Definition: Internal sequence number of the to-node.
Attribute_Definition_Source: National Atlas of the United States
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 0
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Lpoly#
Attribute_Definition: Internal sequence number of the left polygon.
Attribute_Definition_Source: National Atlas of the United States
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 0
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Rpoly#
Attribute_Definition: Internal sequence number of the right polygon.
Attribute_Definition_Source: National Atlas of the United States
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 0
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Length
Attribute_Definition:
Length of the line in coverage units. In the distributed file, coverage units represent decimal degrees.
Attribute_Definition_Source: National Atlas of the United States
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.000
Range_Domain_Maximum: 9.708
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Hurmjrl020
Attribute_Definition: Internal feature number.
Attribute_Definition_Source: National Atlas of the United States
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 1
Range_Domain_Maximum: 4056
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Year
Attribute_Definition:
The year of the storm advisory, in the format yyyy. Advisories are issued for storms that have attained at least tropical depression status, and are issued every six hours, at 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 hours. Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center advisories are discontinued once a storm makes landfall and all storm warnings are dropped, or when the wind speed drops below 30 knots or 35 mph. The records for each date are listed in order.
Attribute_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 1851
Range_Domain_Maximum: 2004
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Month
Attribute_Definition:
The month of the storm advisory. Advisories are issued for storms that have attained at least tropical depression status, and are issued every six hours, at 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 hours. Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center advisories are discontinued once a storm makes landfall and all storm warnings are dropped, or when the wind speed drops below 30 knots or 35 mph. The records for each date are listed in order.
Attribute_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 6
Range_Domain_Maximum: 10
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Day
Attribute_Definition:
The day of the storm advisory. Advisories are issued for storms that have attained at least tropical depression status, and are issued every six hours, at 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 hours. Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center advisories are discontinued once a storm makes landfall and all storm warnings are dropped, or when the wind speed drops below 30 knots or 35 mph. The records for each date are listed in order.
Attribute_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 1
Range_Domain_Maximum: 31
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Btid
Attribute_Definition: The unique event identifier.
Attribute_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 4
Range_Domain_Maximum: 1320
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Name
Attribute_Definition:
The given name of a storm. Storms are named if they are true tropical storms and attain a sustained wind speed of at least 39 mph.
Attribute_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Codeset_Domain:
Codeset_Name: World-Wide Tropical Cyclone Names
Codeset_Source: World Meteorological Organization
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: NOT NAMED
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
There is no given name for the storm. Prior to 1950 storms were not named. Later storms that were not recognized as tropical storms or hurricanes at the time of their occurrence are also not named.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Wind_kts
Attribute_Definition:
The measured or estimated wind speed at the time of the advisory, in whole knots.
Attribute_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 15.0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 165.0
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Pressure
Attribute_Definition:
The measured or estimated barometric pressure at the time of the advisory, in millibars.
Attribute_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 0
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: The barometric pressure is unknown.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 892
Range_Domain_Maximum: 1020
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Location
Attribute_Definition:
A code indicating where in the United States the storm made landfall or impacted a point along the coast, and at what intensity, in the format HR ST#. ST is the two-character State abbreviation, or a location code from the table below, and # is the intensity classification on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Additional codes in the string (HR ST# ST#, etc.) indicate the location and intensity of the storm when it passed back over water or impacted additional points along the coast with hurricane-force winds. A storm may make landfall multiple times.

 Code             Location
--------------------------------------------------------------------
 AFL              NW Florida coast - the Gulf coast down to Tarpon
                  Springs
 BFL              SW Florida coast - Tarpon Springs to the Keys
 CFL              SE Florida coast - north to Cape Canaveral
 DFL              NE Florida coast - north of Cape Canaveral
 ATX              Southern Texas coast south of Corpus Christi
 BTX              Central Texas coast between Corpus Christi and
                  Matagorda Bay
 CTX              Northern Texas coast from Matagorda Bay to the
                  Louisiana state line

For example, Hurricane Andrew (1992) has a location code of HRCFL5BFL4 LA3, which means that Andrew made landfall as a Category 5 hurricane on the southeast coast of Florida, crossed the peninsula and exited as a Category 4 hurricane on the southwest coast of Florida, crossed the Gulf of Mexico and then made final landfall on the Louisiana coast as a Category 3 hurricane.
Attribute_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: There is no predefined set of valid location codes.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Winds_mph
Attribute_Definition:
The measured or estimated wind speed at the time of the advisory, rounded to the nearest 5 miles per hour.
Attribute_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA Coastal Services Center
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 15.0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 190.0
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Category
Attribute_Definition:
The intensity classification of the storm. Hurricanes are classified according to the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale.
Attribute_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: D
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
The storm was classified as a tropical disturbance at the time of the advisory. A tropical disturbance is a discrete tropical weather system of apparently organized convection (i.e. thunderstorm activity), which is generally 100 to 300 nautical miles in diameter. It originates in the tropics or subtropics, has a nonfrontal migratory character, and maintains its identity for 24 hours or more. It does not necessarily exhibit circulation, but may develop into a tropical cyclone.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: E
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
The storm was classified as Extratropical at the time of the advisory. Extratropical is a term used in advisories and tropical summaries to indicate that a cyclone has lost its tropical characteristics. The term implies both that the cyclone has moved out of the tropics and that the energy source driving the storm has changed. While tropical cyclones derive their energy from the convection of warm, moist air, extratropical storms derive their energy from the temperature contrast between warm and cold air masses. It is important to note that cyclones can become extratropical and still retain winds of hurricane or tropical storm force.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: h3
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
The storm was classified as a Category 1 hurricane at the time of the advisory. A Category 1 hurricane is a tropical cyclone with maximum sustained surface (10 meter) winds of 64 knots/74 mph to 82 knots/95 mph, inclusive.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: H2
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
The storm was classified as a Category 2 hurricane at the time of the advisory. A Category 2 hurricane is a tropical cyclone with maximum sustained surface (10 meter) winds of 83 knots/96 mph to 95 knots/110 mph, inclusive.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: H3
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
The storm was classified as a Category 3 hurricane at the time of the advisory. A Category 3 hurricane is a tropical cyclone with maximum sustained surface (10 meter) winds of 96 knots/111 mph to 113 knots/130 mph, inclusive.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: H4
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
The storm was classified as a Category 4 hurricane at the time of the advisory. A Category 4 hurricane is a tropical cyclone with maximum sustained surface (10 meter) winds of 114 knots/131 mph to 135 knots/155 mph, inclusive.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: H5
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
The storm was classified as a Category 5 hurricane at the time of the advisory. A Category 5 hurricane is a tropical cyclone with maximum sustained surface (10 meter) winds greater than 135 knots/155 mph.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: L
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
The storm was classified as a tropical low at the time of the advisory. A tropical low indicates low pressure at the surface, but no other characteristics of a tropical cyclone are present.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: TD
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
The storm was classified as a tropical depression at the time of the advisory. A tropical depression is a tropical cyclone with maximum sustained surface (10 meter) winds of less than 34 knots/ 39 mph.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: TS
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
The storm was classified as a tropical storm at the time of the advisory. A tropical storm is a tropical cyclone with maximum sustained surface (10 meter) winds of 34 knots/39 mph to 64 knots/73 mph, inclusive.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center


Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: Earth Science Information Center, U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing address
Address: 507 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 1-888-ASK-USGS (1-888-275-8747)
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703-648-5920
Contact_Instructions:
In addition to the address above there are other ESIC offices throughout the country. A full list of these offices is at <http://ask.usgs.gov/esic_index.html>.

Distribution_Liability:
Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made by the U.S. Geological Survey regarding the utility of the data on any other system, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. No responsibility is assumed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the use of these data.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ESRI Shapefile
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
<http://nationalatlas.gov/atlasftp.html?openChapters=chpclim#chpclim>
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: SDTS
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
<http://nationalatlas.gov/atlasftp.html?openChapters=chpclim#chpclim>
Fees:
There is no charge for the map layer.


Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20060619
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Peg Rawson
Contact_Organization: National Atlas of the United States
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing address
Address: 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr
Address: MS 561
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703-648-4183
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: atlasmail@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Security_Information:
Metadata_Security_Classification_System: None
Metadata_Security_Classification: Unclassified
Metadata_Security_Handling_Description: None

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About Quality, Accuracy and Suitability

This data may come from a variety of U.S. government and self-reporting private sources. While we try to assure the accuracy of this material, we cannot promise that it is absolutely accurate. We do promise that using the map layer will be fun, entertaining or educational. Beyond this, we make no guarantee as to its suitability for any purpose. We assume no liability or responsibility for errors or inaccuracies. Please understand that you use these map layers at your own risk.

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