GIS Mapping, Education and Research
Home   Store   Free GIS   Education   Free Shapefiles   Census   Weather   Energy   Climate Change   News   Maps   TOPO   Aerial   GPS   Learn GIS

DOWNLOAD SHAPEFILES: Canada FSA Postal - Zip Code - U.S. Waterbodies & Wetlands - Geographic Names - School Districts - Indian Federal Lands
Zip Code/Demographics - U.S. Streams, Rivers & Waterways - Tornadoes - Nuclear Facilities - Dams & Risk - 2013 Toxic Release Inventory TRI

FREE MAPCRUZIN UPDATES
Enter your e-mail



GIS Shapefile Store - for Beginners & Experienced GIS Users Alike. Geographic Names Information System, Nuclear Facilities, Zip Code Boundaries, School Districts, Indian & Federal Lands, Climate Change, Tornadoes, Dams - Create digital GIS maps in minutes.

Toxic Release Inventory TRI Shapefiles

Canada FSA Postal Code Shapefile

GNIS Shapefiles 2,000,000+ Points

Nuclear Energy Facilities in the U.S.

Download Zip Code with Demographics Shapefiles

Download U.S. Streams & Rivers Shapefiles

Download Water Body & Wetland Shapefiles

Download Zip Code Boundary Shapefiles

Download School District Shapefiles

Download Indian & Federal Land Shapefiles

Download Climate Change Shapefiles

Download Tornado Shapefiles

Download Dams & Risks Shapefiles

Follow Mapcruzin.com on Twitter Follow on Twitter

A Member of the
Reimagination Network

Didn't find what you are looking for? Email me and I'll find it for you.

Progressive Links

Federation of American Scientists

Physicians for Social Responsibility

Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility

Union of Concerned Scientists

Alternet

Reader Supported News

Common Dreams

Truthout

Huffington Post

Media Matters

Think Progress

Grist Environmental News

Have a question or comment? Post them at the MapCruzin Blog.

Climate Shift Blog

MapCruzin Consulting
GIS and Google Maps Development, Website Creation and Hosting, Fast and Affordable.

GIS Tutorials

GIS Basics

GIS Terminology

Of Interest

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Maps

Climate Shift - The effects of climate shift on the future of planet earth and its inhabitants.

Right to Know or Left to Wonder?

Hazardscapes - Toxic and Nuclear Risks in your backyard.

War & Environment

Worst Case Scenarios: Terrorism & industrial chemicals.


Subscribe for Updates


Number of Poor Fulltime Workers is Growing
Fair Use Statement

Source: Christian Science Monitor

06/30/2000

The unsolved mystery of the gilded economy
by David R. Francis, Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor

Donna Chambers works at a job that sounds decent enough: assistant manager at the Broadway 99 Cent store in Harlem, N.Y. She puts in long hours - often six days a week.

Yet the mother of two doesn't earn enough that she can always put food on the table: She frequently gets free groceries from food pantries. She has no health insurance. She's struggling to pay an outstanding medical bill.

Her story highlights a troubling anomaly of an economic expansion now stretching into its 10th year: The number of full-time workers in America that remain poor by official measures has risen - not fallen.

In fact, while working poverty fell significantly in the late 1960s and early '70s, almost 3 percent of full-time employees were poor in 1998 - a share not seen since the severe slump at the start of Reagan years in the early 1980s.

The numbers are contained in the first-ever study of poverty among Americans working more than 35 hours a week. The

report, released yesterday by the Conference Board, a business-funded research group in New York, suggests that even as record numbers of Americans enjoy six-figure salaries, the trickle-down effect of economic prosperity isn't reaching many at the bottom of the pay scale.

Experts cite several reasons. Perhaps chief is that, despite a focus on the New Economy's high-paying technology jobs, the current expansion has actually produced more low-skill, low-productivity jobs than existed two decades ago.

The retail and service sectors - encompassing workers such as Ms. Chambers who staff check-out lines or clean offices at the end of the day - account for a growing share of nonmanagerial jobs: 48 percent today versus 30 percent in 1965. Those industries are the lowest-paying in the economy. Meanwhile, the minimum wage over that period has fallen, relative to inflation.

The decline of trade unions has also decreased workers' bargaining power across the board. And manufacturers have gone global with their production, increasingly putting US factory workers in competition with those in lower-wage nations.

"The integration into the US economy of billions of unskilled people abroad has driven down the wages of low-skilled Americans," says Joel Slemrod, an economist at the University of Michigan Business School in Ann Arbor.

Another factor is the demographics of the workforce. Linda Barrington, a labor economist who helped conduct the Conference Board study, notes that the percentage of Americans working full time has risen dramatically.

In the late 1960s, 38 percent of people were working full time; now it is just over 46 percent. Thus, she suggests more people with lower skills are able to find full-time positions and, because of wage trends, not climb above poverty.

Information technology, meanwhile, has boosted living standards more for the talented and educated in the US than for those at the bottom of the pay scale. A lawyer, for example, may use computers to do his legal research 10 times faster than he could by combing through bound volumes of earlier cases. But computers do little to add to the productivity of the ditch digger.

Another obstacle is the cost of living. Housing alone consumes most of Chambers's income, which averages $1,000 a month. "The rent is horrendous," she says. Her boss, David Sadat, says he, too, has barely enough to live on after paying rent. "It doesn't matter if you work full time. It's still not enough."

The number of full-time workers that don't make enough to rise above poverty has risen from 1.5 million in the 1970s to almost 3 million in 1998. (The official poverty line for a family of three is $13,290 a year.)

Add in children and other dependents, and the number of working poor could "easily" add up to 4 million to 5 million Americans, says Ms. Barrington. Many mothers leaving welfare for full-time jobs remain poor.

There are some signs of progress.

Hourly wages for those at the bottom of the income ladder have risen since 1996. Jared Bernstein, an economist at the Economic Policy Institute, notes that controlled for inflation, hourly pay was $5.49 on average in 1996 and $6.05 in 1999 for those in the bottom 10 percent of incomes. Many of these people work part time.

Overall poverty, at 12.7 percent of US households in 1998, stands at the lowest level since 1979, according to the Census Bureau. Yet even as overall poverty has been falling, the proportion of full-time workers that are poor rose from 2.5 percent in 1997 to almost 3 percent in 1998.

The problem of growing income inequality is being persistently raised by Green Party presidential candidate Ralph Nader. Democratic candidate Al Gore is dealing with the issue less directly through his retirement savings plan and his support of a boost in the minimum wage. Both measures would reduce poverty.

Mr. Bernstein says one key factor lies outside the realm of presidential politics: Federal Reserve policy. If the Fed allows unemployment to remain low, through low interest rates, it helps the working poor bargain for better wages. The Fed Wednesday left interest rates unchanged, after a succession of increases aimed at preventing inflation.

The working poor would also be helped if Congress undertook a minimum-wage hike, improvements in the Earned Income Tax Credit, and child-care subsidies, Bernstein says.

For her part, Chambers agrees that raising the minimum wage would be a nice start. But she'd also like to see a politician try raising two girls in a one-bedroom apartment while working 50 hours a week. To know what's really going on, she says, policymakers "have to go into the belly of the beast."

*Kim Masibay contributed to this report from New York.

Didn't find what you are looking for? We've been online since 1996 and have created 1000's of pages. Search below and you may find just what you are looking for.



MapCruzin.com is an independent firm specializing in the publication of educational and research resources. We created the first U.S. based interactive toxic chemical facility maps on the internet in 1996 and we have been online ever since. Learn more about us and view some of our projects and services.

If you have data, GIS project or custom shapefile needs send me an email.

Contact Us

Report Broken Links

Subscribe for Updates

Advertise on MapCruzin

Follow on Facebook
News & Updates

Find: Maps, Shapefiles, GIS Software & More

MapCruzin Blog for updates, questions and answers

Mapcruzin Free GIS Tools, Resources, News and Maps

↑ Grab this Headline Animator

Blog Updates

More Blog Updates

Downloads

Google Earth Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Maps
Lester Brown's Plan B 3.0
State GIS Shapefiles, Maps & Resources
GIS Shapefiles & Maps
GIS Programs, Tools & Resources
Free World Country & Regional Maps
GIS / GPS Careers and Job Positions
Disease Outbreak Maps
TOPO Maps
Extreme Weather & Disaster Maps
Free World Maps from the CIA Factbook
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ANWR Maps
Oil and Gas Maps
Africanized Honey Bees
Renewable Energy Potential Maps of the United States
Terrorism Maps
War Maps
Google Maps
Weather Maps
GPS Resources
Historical Maps of the World
Google Earth
Library of Congress American Memory Map Downloads
Toxic Chemical Pollution Maps
Climate Change Maps
Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Maps
Census Shapefiles
World Maps

Issues

Environmental Justice
Data Sources
Greenwash & JunkScience
Statistical Resources
Wireless Dangers
Surviving Climate Change
Global Right-To-Know
Creating Living Economies
Books of Note
Toxic Klamath River
Federal Lands Maps
TRI Analysis
TRI Webmaps
EnviroRisk Map Network
Community-Based Research
Right-To-Know or Left to Wonder?
Chemical Industry Archives
21st Century Warfare
Biotechnology
Nanotechnology
Globalization/Democracy
National Parks and Public Lands
Trade Secrets/Toxic Deception
GIS Books
Our Projects
Other Projects
1999 Archive Environews
Environmental Books
Environmental Links
Redwood Coast Information
Recycle, Salvage, Reuse

Resources
Shapefile Store
Free GIS Software
Free Map Downloads
Free Shapefiles
Free Remote Sensing
Free Topo Maps
Free GIS Tutorial
Free GPS
ToxicRisk.com
ClimateShift.com
Maptivist.com

About MapCruzin - Cookies, Privacy, Fair Use and Disclaimer - Advertise on MapCruzin.com

Website development and hosting provided by Michael Meuser

Copyright © 1996 - 2017 Michael Meuser, All Rights Reserved
MapCruzin is a Pop-Up Free Website -- Best Viewed With ANY Browser