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Right-To-Know Atlas of the United States CD

These are brief descriptions of the map files contained on our Right-To-Know Atlas of the United States CD.

Abandoned Mine Land Inventory - Coal Mine Related Problems -- This data set contains 22,143 points for Problem Areas containing public health, safety, public welfare, and environmental problems created by past coal mining. It is a subset of data contained in the Office of Surface Mining (OSM) Abandoned Mine Land Inventory.

Agriculture Census -- This map layer portrays National Agricultural Statistics Service's 1997 Census of Agriculture for the United States. The information is county level and includes 25 categories. Included in the map layer is information for farms, crops, livestock, values of products, and farm operator characteristics

Airports -- This map layer includes the locations of nearly 850 airports in the United States. The information in the map layer was provided by the Federal Aviation Administration of the Department of Transportation and was originally published in the National Transportation Atlas by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. The atlas is a collection of geospatial databases depicting nationally significant transportation facilities and networks.

Amphibians -- This data set shows the distribution, by county, for 10 species of amphibians in the United States. The amphibians included are northern cricket frog, American toad, Cope's gray treefrog, gray treefrog, eastern newt, eastern red-backed salamander, northern two-lined salamander, mudpuppy, western lesser siren, and spring peeper. The distribution information in these data comes from historical literature and museum records from current and historical sources.

Aquifers of Alluvial and Glacial Origin -- This map layer shows unconsolidated sand and gravel aquifers of alluvial and glacial origin, north of the southern-most line of glaciation. An aquifer is a geologic formation, group of formations, or part of a formation that contains sufficient saturated, permeable material to yield significant quantities of water to wells and springs. Alluvial aquifers are those that were deposited by a stream or other body of running water in a streambed, on a flood plain, on a delta, or at the base of a mountain. Glacial aquifers are formations that were deposited by a glacier. This map layer was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey from a variety of sources.

Additional aquifer information is included in the National Atlas Principal Aquifers of the 48 Conterminous United States map layer.

Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States -- This data set was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey, National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA), which is responsible for developing long-term consistent and comparable information on streams, ground water, and aquatic ecosystems. This information supports national, regional, State, and local water-management and policy decisions that protect drinking water and other water resources, as well as public health. NAWQA information on arsenic in ground water is used by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to help set national standards for arsenic in drinking water, as mandated by the Safe Drinking Water Act.

The Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States image was generated from the most recent arsenic measurements available for 31,350 wells and springs across the United States. It shows national-scale patterns of naturally occurring arsenic in potable ground water resources of the continental United States and Puerto Rico. The data set shows a moving 75th percentile, which can also be described as the maximum arsenic concentration found in 75% of samples within a moving 50 km radius (the median size of a U.S. county).

Average Annual Precipitation -- This data set shows average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States for the climatological period 1961-1990. It was created from the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) which was developed by the Spatial Climate Analysis Service at Oregon State University. This data set is the product of a partnership between the Natural Resources Conservation Service and the Spatial Climate Analysis Service.

Breeding Bird Survey Routes of North America -- This map layer portrays the current routes used for conducting Breeding Bird Surveys in the lower 48 States. This data set was collected using a different roads file from that available through the National Atlas of the United States, so there may be positional differences between the two map layers.

Butterflies -- This data table contains information about the occurrence of butterflies in counties in the United States. Most observations are from the last 30 to 40 years and are cumulative. Therefore, this map layer does not necessarily imply current residence of the species. This butterfly occurrence data table was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey.

Cancer Mortality -- This map layer contains 1970-1994 cancer mortality information for the United States. Most of the information is county based and includes death rates, number of deaths, confidence levels, and expected number of deaths for white males and white females for 20 cancers. The data are from a cancer mapping project in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics.

Census 1980 -- This data table contains 1980 population information for ethnic groups, male and female populations, urban population and rural population in the United States. The information was provided by the U.S. Census Bureau.

Census 1990 -- This data table contains 1990 population information for ethnic groups, male and female populations, urban population and rural population in the United States. The information was provided by the U.S. Census Bureau.

Census 2000 -- This data table contains 2000 population information for ethnic groups, male and female populations, urban population and rural population in the United States. The information was provided by the U.S. Census Bureau.

Cities and Towns -- This map layer includes the locations of over 35,000 towns and cities in the United States. These locations were collected from The National Atlas of the United States of America® published in 1970. This information was updated and supplemented with additional data from the official repository of American's place names, the Geographic Names Information System. The cities and towns map layer was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Fields of the United States -- This map layer portrays areas that contain significant coal deposits for Alaska and the lower 48 States of United States. The layer contains the name of the coal field or region, the type of coal and if it is minable. The types of coal included are lignite, bituminous, subbituminous, and anthracite. The Department of Energy Fossil Fuels education site has information about the types of coal.

Congressional Districts of the United States - 107th Congress -- This map layer data set portrays the Congressional Districts of the United States for the 107th Congress. The data set was created by extracting lines from existing National Atlas layers that are coincident with Congressional District boundaries. In areas lacking coincident geometry, lines from 1:100,000 scale Congressional District boundaries published by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Geography Division were generalized and integrated into the data layer.

Congressional Districts of the United States - 108th Congress -- This map layer data set portrays the Congressional Districts of the United States for the 108th Congress. The data set was created by extracting lines from existing National Atlas layers that are coincident with Congressional District boundaries. In areas lacking coincident geometry, lines from 1:100,000 scale Congressional District boundaries published by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Geography Division were generalized and integrated into the data layer.

Continental Divide -- The Continental Divide is a line separating waters that flow into the Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico from those that flow into the Pacific Ocean. It runs north-south along the crest of the Rocky Mountains and is sometimes called the Great Divide. This map layer was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey by extracting the appropriate lines from the Hydrologic Unit Boundaries layer of the National Atlas.

The Continental Divide map layer shows the continental divide in the conterminous United States. The divide itself continues into Mexico on the south, and into Canada and Alaska on the north.

County Boundaries 2001 -- This map layer portrays the 2001 county boundaries of the United States. County names and Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) codes are two significant pieces of information associated with every county polygon in this map layer. The County Boundaries map layer was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey from a variety of sources.

County Boundaries 2000 -- This map layer portrays the 2000 county boundaries of the United States. County names and Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) codes are two significant pieces of information associated with every county polygon in this map layer. The County Boundaries map layer was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey from a variety of sources.

County Boundaries 1990 -- This map layer portrays the 1990 county boundaries of the United States. County names and Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) codes are two significant pieces of information associated with every county polygon in this map layer. The County Boundaries map layer was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey from a variety of sources.

County Boundaries 1980 -- This map layer portrays the 1980 county boundaries of the United States. County names and Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) codes are two significant pieces of information associated with every county polygon in this map layer. The County Boundaries map layer was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey from a variety of sources.

Crimes -- This data set is a compilation of United States crime statistics for 1994-1998, drawn from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program data compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) and archived at the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR). Data are reported by county and are provided for eight crimes: murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, and arson.

Dams -- This map layer includes the locations of over 7,700 majors dams in the United States. The information in the map layer was provided by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The original dam information came from the National Inventory of Dams (NID) which was produced by USACE in cooperation with FEMA's National Dam Safety Program. The full NID contains over 75,000 dams and is used to track information on the country's water control infrastructure.

Federal Lands and Indian Reservations -- This map layer portrays the federally and Indian administered lands of the United States that have any area equal to or greater than 640 acres. The government agencies that administer these lands include the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Bureau of Land Management, the Department of Defense, the Forest Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Park Service, and the Tennessee Valley Authority.

Forest Cover Types -- This data set portrays 25 classes of forest cover types for the United States. Data were derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) composite images recorded during the 1991 growing season, with the exception of Puerto Rico, for which Landsat Thematic MapperTM data were used.

Forest Fragmentation Index Map of North America -- This map layer data set is a grid map of North America including the Caribbean and most of Mexico. The data set is an excerpt from a global assessment of forest fragmentation. Each pixel value represents an index of forest fragmentation for the surrounding 81 sq. km.

The data set was created by applying spatial algorithms to a 1 sq. km. resolution map of global land cover obtained from the USGS EROS Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) as part of the Global Land Cover Characteristics database (GLCC). One of six categories of fragmentation was identified for each forested pixel in North America from the amount of forest and its occurrence as adjacent forest pixels within a 9x9 pixel (81 sq. km.) window surrounding the pixel on the original land-cover map.

The data set describes one aspect of forest fragmentation at one scale. The forest fragmentation index is designed to distinguish among types of fragmentation (e.g., edges on the interior versus the exterior of a forest patch) and it also reflects differences in the absolute amount of forest present. However, no distinction was drawn between "natural" and "human-caused" fragmentation.

Historical North Atlantic Hurricane Tracks - Major Storms with Landfall in the United States -- This map layer contains tracks of major hurricanes that made landfall in the United States as category 3 or higher* hurricanes. This layer includes major hurricanes from 1851 through 2000. There were no storms in 2000 that were category 3 or higher when they made landfall. The storm tracks were created from observations of storm center locations taken every six hours. * The category rating is based on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, which uses wind speed as the determining factor.

Historical North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Tracks -- The National Hurricane Center (NHC), part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration maintains a continuous watch on tropical cyclones over the Atlantic, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Eastern Pacific from May 15th through November 30th. As part of the watch the NHC collects storm track data.

This map layer contains tracks of all North Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico subtropical depressions and storms, tropical depressions and storms, and all hurricanes from 1851 through 2000. The storm tracks were created from observations of storm center locations taken every six hours.

Hydrologic Unit Boundaries -- This data was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey and depicts a hydrologic system that divides and subdivides the United States into successively smaller river basin units. These subdivisions, or hydrologic units, are used for collection and organization of hydrologic data. The hydrologic units outlined in this data represent natural and manmade stream-drainage areas. The boundaries and associated hydrologic unit codes were modified from the State Hydrologic Unit Maps (1:500,000-scale) prepared by the USGS in cooperation with the U.S. Water Resources Council.

Invasive Species - Chinese Privet -- Considered an invasive species, Chinese privet is a shrub or small tree that aggressively colonizes open areas in the eastern United States. This data set contains county-level distribution information for Chinese privet (scientific name - Ligustrum sinense) in the U.S. The collection year of the specimen is included. These data come from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service's PLANTS Database.

Invasive Species - Chinese Tallow Tree -- Chinese tallow tree is considered an invasive species which displaces native vegetation in the southern United States. This data set contains county-level distribution information for Chinese tallow tree (scientific name - Triadica sebifera) in the U. S. The collection year of the specimen is included. These data come from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service's PLANTS Database.

Invasive Species - Common Gorse -- Common gorse is considered an invasive species. By crowding out native vegetation in the western United States it is causing the loss of valuable grassland habitat. This data set contains county-level distribution information for Common Gorse (scientific name - Ulex europaeus) in the U.S. The collection year of the specimen is included. These data come from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service's PLANTS database.

Invasive Species - Leafy Spurge -- Leafy spurge is considered an invasive species which displaces native vegetation in prairie habitats and fields. This data set contains county-level distribution information for leafy spurge (scientific name - Euphorbia esula) in the United States. The collection year of the specimen is included. These data come from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service's PLANTS Database.

Invasive Species - Purple Loosestrife -- Purple loosestrife is considered an invasive species. Its displacement of native species in wetlands has led to the loss of suitable habitat for wildlife. This data set contains county-level distribution information for Purple loosestrife (scientific name - Lythrum salicaria) in the United States. The collection year of the specimen is included. These data come from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service's PLANTS Database.

Invasive Species - Zebra Mussels -- A small mollusk called the zebra mussel has been steadily invading America's rivers and lakes. Zebra mussels colonize water intake pipes and severely restrict the water flow. This has cost billions of dollars of damage to municipal and private facilities that rely on fresh water. This map layer shows the locations of confirmed zebra mussel sightings in the United States from 1988 to 1998. The sighting reports came from a variety of federal, State, and municipal agencies, public utilities, universities, engineering and private consultant firms, and businesses.

Land Cover Characteristics -- This image data portrays the land cover characteristics for North America. It was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The data includes the following classes of data: urban and built-up land, cropland and pasture, shrubland, grassland, deciduous and evergreen forest, water, wetlands, and tundra.

Land Cover Diversity -- The land cover diversity map portrays relative diversity, considering both natural and anthropogenic land cover types. This is a first step towards quantifying biodiversity at landscape-scale levels of biological organization. These data were originally created as part of a global analysis of land cover diversity and pattern based on digital land cover maps derived from remote sensing. The remote sensor used was the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR).

Landslide - Costly Events -- This data set from the USGS National Landslides Hazards Program shows locations of 32 landslide events in the United States and Puerto Rico where there was public or private property damage or loss of human life. Landslides are defined in a broad manner, to include most types of gravitational mass movement such as rockfalls, debris flows, and the failure of engineered soil materials. Landslide causes include earthquakes, reservoir draw-downs, and heavy precipitation.

Landslide - Costly Regional Landslide Events -- This data set from the USGS National Landslides Hazards Program contains information on 15 costly regional landslide events in the United States and Puerto Rico where there was public or private property damage or loss of human life. The extents represent the approximate boundaries of extensive landsliding triggered by a single meteorological or seismic event. Landslides are defined in a broad manner,to include most types of gravitational mass movement such as rockfalls, debris flows, and the failure of engineered soil materials.

Landslide Incidence and Susceptibility -- This map layer is a digital version of U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1183, Landslide Overview Map of the Conterminous United States. This layer delineates areas where large numbers of landslides have occurred and areas which are susceptible to landsliding in the conterminous United States. The purpose of the map is to give the user a general indication of areas that may be susceptible to landsliding. It is not suitable for local planning or site selection. The Landslide Incidence and Susceptibility of the Conterminous United States map layer was compiled by USGS.

Magnetic Field - Declination Component -- This map layer data set shows isogonic lines (lines of constant declination of the Earth's magnetic field), derived from the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for the epoch 1995.0. Magnetic declination is the angular difference between true north and magnetic north.

The declination component (D) of the IGRF changes smoothly over most of the Earth with the exception of a region surrounding each of the geomagnetic poles. Near the geomagnetic poles, the isogonic lines (lines of equal declination) crowd closer and closer together. For more information about the geomagnetic field, please visit NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC)

Magnetic Field - Declination Secular Variation Component -- This map layer data set shows isoporic lines (lines of equal annual change, or secular variation, in the declination of the Earth's magnetic field), derived from the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for the epoch 1995.0. Magnetic declination is the angle between true north and magnetic north (the direction of the magnetic field vector) in the horizontal plane. The change is measured in arc minutes per year.

The declination component (D) and the secular variation (DSV, the time rate of change of D) of the IGRF change smoothly over most of the Earth with the exception of a region surrounding each of the geomagnetic poles. Near the geomagnetic poles, the isogonic lines (lines of equal declination) and isoporic lines crowd closer and closer together because at adjacent grid points (1 deg separation) the IGRF values of D and DSV upon which the lines are based vary extremely. For more information about the geomagnetic field, please visit NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC).

Magnetic Field - Inclination Component -- This map layer data set shows isoclinic lines (lines of constant inclination of the Earth's magnetic field), derived from the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for the epoch 1995.0. Magnetic inclination is the angle between the magnetic field vector and the horizontal plane.

The inclination component (I) of the IGRF changes smoothly over most of the Earth. For more information about the geomagnetic field, please visit NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC).

Magnetic Field - Inclination Secular Variation Component -- This data set shows lines of equal annual change (secular variation) in the inclination of the Earth's magnetic field, derived from the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for the epoch 1995.0. Magnetic inclination is the angle between the magnetic field vector and the horizontal plane. The change is measured in arc minutes per year.

The inclination component (I) and the secular variation (ISV, the time rate of change of I) of the IGRF change smoothly over most of the Earth. For more information about the geomagnetic field, please visit NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC)

Magnetic Field - Total Field Intensity -- This data set shows isodynamic lines (lines of equal total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field), derived from the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for the epoch 1995.0. Magnetic intensity is the strength of the magnetic field, and is described in terms of a horizontal component and a vertical component. The total field intensity is the strength of the field, not divided into its component parts.

The total field intensity (F) of the IGRF changes smoothly over most of the Earth. For more information about the geomagnetic field, please visit NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC).

Magnetic Field - Total Field Intensity Secular Variation -- This data set shows lines of equal annual change (secular variation), in the total field intensity of the Earth's magnetic field, derived from the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for the epoch 1995.0. Magnetic intensity is the strength of the magnetic field, and is described in terms of a horizontal component and a vertical component. The total field intensity is the strength of the field, not divided into its component parts. The change in intensity is measured in nanoTeslas per year.

The total field intensity (F) and the secular variation (FSV, the time rate of change of F) of the IGRF change smoothly over most of the Earth. For more information about the geomagnetic field, please visit NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC).

Magnetic Field - Horizontal Intensity -- This data set shows lines of equal horizontal intensity of the Earth's magnetic field, derived from the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for the epoch 1995.0. Magnetic intensity is the strength of the magnetic field, and is described in terms of a horizontal component and a vertical component. Horizontal intensity is the horizontal strength of the magnetic field.

The horizontal component (H) of the IGRF changes smoothly over most of the Earth. For more information about the geomagnetic field, please visit NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC).

Magnetic Field - Horizontal Intensity secular variation -- This data set shows lines of equal annual change (secular variation) in the horizontal component of the total field intensity of the Earth's magnetic field, derived from the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for the epoch 1995.0. Magnetic intensity is the strength of the magnetic field, and is described in terms of a horizontal component and a vertical component. The change in intensity is measured in nanoTeslas per year.

The horizontal component (H) and the secular variation (HSV, the time rate of change of H) of the IGRF change smoothly over most of the Earth. For more information about the geomagnetic field, please visit NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC).

Magnetic Field - Vertical Intensity -- This data set shows lines of equal vertical intensity of the Earth's magnetic field, derived from the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for the epoch 1995.0. Magnetic intensity is the strength of the magnetic field, and is described in terms of a horizontal component and a vertical component. Vertical intensity is the vertical strength of the magnetic field.

The vertical component (Z) of the IGRF changes smoothly over most of the Earth. For more information about the geomagnetic field, please visit NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC).

Magnetic Field - Vertical Intensity Secular Variation -- This data set shows lines of equal annual change (secular variation) in the vertical component of the total field intensity of the Earth's magnetic field, derived from the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for the epoch 1995.0. Magnetic intensity is the strength of the magnetic field, and is described in terms of a horizontal component and a vertical component. The change in intensity is measured in nanoTeslas per year.

The vertical component (Z) and the secular variation (ZSV, the time rate of change of Z) of the IGRF change smoothly over most of the Earth. For more information about the geomagnetic field, please visit NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC).

Mineral Operations - Agricultural -- This data contains 309 agricultural mineral operations that are covered by the Mineral Information Team. This information is part of the Mineral Resources Program which is responsible for providing and communicating current, unbiased information on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources.

Mineral Operations - Construction -- This data contains 525 construction mineral operations that are covered by the Mineral Information Team. This information is part of the Mineral Resources Program which is responsible for providing and communicating current, unbiased information on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources.

Mineral Operations - Ferrous Metal Mines -- This data contains 35 ferrous metal mines that are covered by the Mineral Information Team. This information is part of the Mineral Resources Program which is responsible for providing and communicating current, unbiased information on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources.

Mineral Operations - Ferrous Metals Processing Plants -- This data contains 69 ferrous metal processing plants that are covered by the Mineral Information Team. This information is part of the Mineral Resources Program which is responsible for providing and communicating current, unbiased information on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources.

Mineral Operations - Miscellaneous Industrial -- This data contains 358 miscellaneous industrial minerals operations that are covered by the Mineral Information Team. This information is part of the Mineral Resources Program which is responsible for providing and communicating current, unbiased information on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources.

Mineral Operations - Nonferrous Metal Mines -- This data contains 247 nonferrous metal mines that are covered by the Mineral Information Team. This information is part of the Mineral Resources Program which is responsible for providing and communicating current, unbiased information on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources.

Mineral Operations - Nonferrous Metal Processing Plants -- This data contains 128 Nonferrous Metal Processing Plants that are covered by the Mineral Information Team. This information is part of the Mineral Resources Program which is responsible for providing and communicating current, unbiased information on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources.

Mineral Operations - Refractory, Abrasive, and Other Industrial -- This data contains 336 refractory, abrasive, and other industrial mineral operations that are covered by the Mineral Information Team. This information is part of the Mineral Resources Program which is responsible for providing and communicating current, unbiased information on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources.

Mineral Operations - Sand and Gravel -- This map layer includes 3,386 sand and gravel operations operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate producing companies. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the U.S. Geological Survey, and the operations are those considered active in 1998 with production greater than 30,000 tons and surveyed by the MIT.

Mineral Operations - Stone, Crushed -- This map layer includes 2,691 crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate producing companies. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the U.S. Geological Survey, and the operations are those considered active in 1998 with production greater than 30,000 tons and surveyed by the MIT.

Mortality, 1988-1992 -- This map layer contains mortality information for eleven leading causes of death, eight subset causes, and all causes combined for United States Health Service Areas. The information was provided by the National Center for Health Statistics and was originally published in the Atlas of United States Mortality. The age-adjusted mortality rates include rates by sex and race (white and black).

Moths -- This data table contains information about the occurrence of moths in counties in the United States. Most observations are from the last 30 to 40 years and are cumulative. Therefore, this map layer does not necessarily imply current residence of the species. This moth occurrence data table was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey.

NAWQA Surface-Water Sampling Sites -- This data set shows 1,044 surface-water sampling sites used by the 1991 and 1994 National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study units. In 1991, the U.S. Congress appropriated funds for the U.S. Geological Survey to begin the NAWQA Program. The goals of the NAWQA program are to describe the status and trends in the quality of the Nation's ground- and surface-water resources and to provide a sound understanding of the natural and human factors that affect the quality of these resources. The building blocks of the national assessment are investigations in major hydrologic systems of the Nation, referred to as "study units". The study units are divided into three groups, which are intensively studied on a rotational schedule over successive 3-year intervals. The first group began in 1991, the second in 1994 and third in 1997. This data set includes selected surface-water sampling sites from the first two groups of study units.

Nighttime Lights of North America -- This map layer shows nighttime lights in North America. The map layer was derived from cloud-free portions of images taken during 231 orbits of a satellite in 1996 and 1997. This Defense Department satellite has a unique ability to detect low levels of visible radiance at night. It can detect lights from cities, towns, industrial sites, gas flares, and temporary events such as fires and clouds lit by lightning or moonlight. The majority of the detected features are lights from cities and towns. The data were provided by the National Geophysical Data Center.

North American Bat Ranges -- This map layer was compiled by Bat Conservation International, using data drawn from U.S. State natural heritage programs, Canadian conservation data centers, published literature, unpublished reports, museum collections, and personal communications from university, Federal, State and local biologists. Bat Conservation International is active in conservation, education, and research initiatives involving bats and the ecosystems they serve and works to protect and restore bats and their habitats worldwide.

Official Protraction Diagrams/Leasing Map -- This map layer from the Minerals Management Service shows Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) and leasing map boundaries covering areas of the Outer Continental Shelf within Federal jurisdiction. The boundaries are used to support Federal land ownership and mineral resource management. The irregularly shaped areas in the Gulf of Mexico are the Leasing Maps which were developed in an early offshore program. The other areas, the OPDs, were developed on a Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid. This map layer shows existing and planned OPD limits. Actual limits of Federal jurisdiction are defined by various international and maritime boundaries not depicted.

Parkways and Scenic Rivers -- This map layer portrays the locations of federally administered parkways and wild and scenic rivers. This map layer was produced by the U.S. Geological Survey.

Presidential General Election 2000, State Results -- The data set for this map layer includes election results for the 2000 Presidential general election at the State level. It includes data for electoral votes and popular votes for the Democratic, Republican, and other political parties as well as the total popular vote. The Federal Election Commission provided these data.

Principal Aquifers of the 48 Conterminous United States -- This map layer shows the distribution of the principal aquifers that supply ground water to the conterminous United States (commonly called the "lower 48 states"). The aquifer that is shown in each geographic area is generally the uppermost principal aquifer for the area. Each principal aquifer is classified as one of six types of permeable geologic material.

Public Land Survey System -- This map layer portrays the boundaries of the Public Land Survey System of the United States. The information in the map layer was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey from a variety of sources. The information does appear visible in the browser until the viewer zooms into a scale of larger than 1:4,500,000.

Railroads -- This map layer includes railroads in the United States. The Railroads map layer was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey. This map layer is being revised to include more descriptive information about its linear railroad features.

Realtime Steamflow Stations -- This map layer shows the distribution of realtime streamgaging stations in the United States. When you identify a station, you will see a link to the current streamflow for that station.

Almost 5,000 of the USGS's approximately 7,000 streamgages are equipped with telemetry that transmits a reading of stream depth ("stage") to a district office via satellite or telephone. Computers in the district office convert the depth reading to a value for flow and plot a graph of flow vs time, usually showing the previous 7 days. Some stations also transmit values for temperature, conductance, or other parameters. The data typically are updated every 4 hours, but this can vary depending upon the equipment used and the flow status -- more frequent updates may be made in times of flooding. Real-time hydrologic data are considered provisional data. Please be aware of the limitations this imposes.

Roads -- This map layer includes major roads in the United States. The Roads map layer was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey.

Seismic Hazards -- This map represents a model showing the probability that ground motion will reach a certain level during an earthquake. The data show peak horizontal ground acceleration (the fastest measured change in speed, for a particle at ground level that is moving horizontally due to an earthquake) with a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. The map was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Geologic Hazards Team, which conducts global investigations of earthquake, geomagnetic, and landslide hazards.

Shaded Relief of North America -- This map layer shows the shaded relief throughout North America. The image data included in this map layer is a portrayal of the terrain and is intended for visual purposes only.

Significant and Historic Earthquakes -- This map layer shows the locations and attributes of significant, historic earthquakes in the U.S. and in adjacent Canada and Mexico between the years of 1568 - 1996 . Many of the earthquakes contained within this layer caused deaths, property damage, geological effects, or were otherwise experienced by populations in the 48 conterminous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands.

The Significant Earthquakes map layer was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey and extracted in early 1997 from the online data archive of National Earthquake Information Center.

States -- This map layer portrays the state boundaries of the United States. It was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey.

Streams and Waterbodies -- This map layer portrays the streams and waterbodies of the United States that can be represented at a map scale of 1:2,000,000 (one inch on a map at that scale would equal about 31.6 miles on the land surface). Some small streams, ponds, lakes, and reservoirs cannot be portrayed at this scale. We have associated names to all stream segments and water bodies for which official geographic names were available. The Streams and Waterbodies map layer was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey from a variety of sources.

Time Zone -- This data set portrays the seven time zones for the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Information on Greenwich Mean Time offset and areas in the U.S. where daylight savings time is observed is also included.

Urban Areas -- This map layer includes the outlines of major urban areas in the United States. The Urban Areas map layer was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey and is derived from the Digital Chart of the World.

Volcanoes -- This map layer shows the locations of volcanoes throughout North America thought to be active in the last 10,000 years. The data included in this map layer is a subset of data available on the World Wide Web from the Global Volcanism Program, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.

Water Features -- This map layer portrays the streams and waterbodies of the United States that can be represented at a map scale of 1:2,000,000 (one inch on a map at that scale would equal about 31.6 miles on the land surface). Some small streams, ponds, lakes, and reservoirs cannot be portrayed at this scale. We have associated names to all stream segments and water bodies for which official geographic names were available. The Streams and Waterbodies map layer was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey from a variety of sources.

West Nile Virus

2000 Data:

West Nile Virus

2001 Data:

  • Human Cases
  • Mosquito Surveillance
  • Sentinel Flock Surveillance
  • Veterinary Cases
  • Wild Bird Cases

Wilderness Areas of the United States -- This map layer shows National Wilderness Preservation System areas of 640 acres or more for all 50 of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. These areas are established according to the Wilderness Act of 1964, P.L. 88-577. They are owned or administered by the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, or the National Park Service. Wilderness areas are undeveloped areas of Federal land that retain their primeval character and influence, without permanent improvements or human habitation, which are protected and managed to preserve their natural conditions.

Wilderness area information is also included in the National Atlas Federal Lands and Indian Reservations map layer. The Wilderness Areas map layer was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey.

Wildlife Mortality:

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Clary-Meuser Research Network
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