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Spatial Hazard Events and Losses for the United States, 1995-2000

Spatial Hazard Events and Losses for the United States, 1995-2000

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Frequently-anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Spatial Hazard Events and Losses for the United States, 1995-2000
Abstract:
This data set is a subset of the Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the United States (SHELDUS Version 2.0) that was compiled by the University of South Carolina. It portrays county-level hazard data for the United States, for the years 1995 to 2000. Included is information for 16 different natural hazard event types, as well as the total cost of damage due to natural hazards. The event types included are avalanches, coastal events, drought, flooding, fog, hail, heat, hurricanes/tropical storms, landslides, lightning, severe storms/thunderstorms, tornadoes, tsunamis/seiches, wildfires, wind, and winter weather. For each event type, information is reported on property losses, crop losses, injuries, and fatalities in each county.

The hazards information was derived from several existing national data sources such as the National Climatic Data Center's (NCDC) monthly Storm Data publications and the National Geophysical Data Center's Tsunami Event Database. Included are those events that generated more than $50,000 in damages, and events that are reported in NCDC's Storm Data with a specific damage amount.

This is an update of the August, 2004, data set. A field containing information on property damage per square mile has been added to the total damages file.

Supplemental_Information:
To create maps that are similar to the maps in the National Atlas <http://nationalatlas.gov/natlas/Natlasstart.asp>, the database files can be joined to the 1990 county boundaries available from the National Atlas download page, <http://nationalatlas.gov/atlasftp.html?openChapters=chpbound#chpbound>.

The Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the United States (SHELDUS) was compiled and geo-referenced by the Hazards Research Lab at the University of South Carolina. The database was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation and the University of South Carolina's Office of the Vice President for Research. For more information see <http://go2.cla.sc.edu/hazard/db_registration>.

SHELDUS was compiled from the following sources:

Data for avalanches, coastal events, droughts, flooding, fog, heat, landslides, lightning, severe storms/thunderstorms, and winter weather were compiled from: National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC, "Storm Data and Unusual Weather Phenomena" <http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/ncdc.html>. All natural hazard events with a unique dollar amount in losses (1995-2000) were manually entered into the database.

Data for hail and wind were compiled from: a) National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC, "Storm Data and Unusual Weather Phenomena"" <http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/ncdc.html>. All natural hazard events with a unique dollar amount in losses (1995-2000) were manually entered into the database. b) Supplementary information was received from the Storm Prediction Center, Norman, OK (1960-1995) at <http://www.spc.noaa.gov/archive/index.html>.

Data for hurricanes/tropical storms were compiled from: a) National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC, "Storm Data and Unusual Weather Phenomena" <http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/ncdc.html>. All natural hazard events with a unique dollar amount in losses (1995-2000) were manually entered into the database. b) Supplementary information was received from the National Hurricane Center at <http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pastall.shtml> and "Monthly Weather Review".

Data for tornadoes were compiled from: a) National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC, "Storm Data and Unusual Weather Phenomena" <http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/ncdc.html>. All natural hazard events with a unique dollar amount in losses (2000) were manually entered into the database. b) Supplementary information was received from the Storm Prediction Center, Norman, OK (1960-1995) at <http://www.spc.noaa.gov/archive/index.html>.

Data for tsunamis/seiches were compiled from: National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO, "Tsunami Event Database" <http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/ngdc.html>. Every natural hazard event with more than $50,000 in losses (1960-2000) was manually entered into the database.

Data for wildfires were compiled from: a) National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC, "Storm Data and Unusual Weather Phenomena" <http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/ncdc.html>. All natural hazard events with a unique dollar amount in losses (1995-2000) were manually entered into the database. b) Supplementary data was received from The U.S. Fire Administration at <http://www.usfa.fema.gov>.

The data set of Spatial Hazard Events and Losses for the United States, 1995-2000 consists of 17 database files that are distributed together. There are 16 hazard event type files, described by shelYYt.dbf where YY is the type of hazard, listed below. Shelsmt.dbf describes total hazard damages for each county for the subject time period. Each file contains records only for the counties affected by the event type.

shelYYt  YY  Hazard Event
---------------------------------------
shel01t   1  Avalanche
shel02t   2  Coastal
shel03t   3  Drought
shel05t   5  Flooding
shel06t   6  Fog
shel07t   7  Hail
shel08t   8  Heat
shel09t   9  Hurricane/Tropical Storm
shel10t  10  Landslide
shel11t  11  Lightning
shel12t  12  Severe Storm/Thunderstorm
shel13t  13  Tornado
shel14t  14  Tsunami/Seiche
shel16t  16  Wildfire
shel17t  17  Wind
shel18t  18  Winter Weather
shelsmt      Total damages for each county
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    National Atlas of the United States, 200411, Spatial Hazard Events and Losses for the United States, 1995-2000: National Atlas of the United States, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: 170
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -64
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 72
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 17

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 1995
    Ending_Date: 2000
    Currentness_Reference: Ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

      Indirect_Spatial_Reference:
      U.S. Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas (FIPS 6-4): Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology.

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Hazard event statistics for 1995-2000.
    Natural hazard event statistics by county, for hazards that occurred during the years 1995 to 2000. Each hazard is described by shelYYt.dbf where YY is the type of hazard, listed below. Shelsmt.dbf describes total hazard damages for each county for the subject time period. Each file contains records only for the counties affected by the event type.
    
    shelYYt  YY  Hazard Event                   Number of counties affected
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------
    shel01t   1  Avalanche                      60
    shel02t   2  Coastal                        129
    shel03t   3  Drought                        927
    shel05t   5  Flooding                       2387
    shel06t   6  Fog                            90
    shel07t   7  Hail                           1702
    shel08t   8  Heat                           1039
    shel09t   9  Hurricane/Tropical Storm       357
    shel10t  10  Landslide                      9
    shel11t  11  Lightning                      1483
    shel12t  12  Severe Storm/Thunderstorm      2648
    shel13t  13  Tornado                        2189
    shel14t  14  Tsunami/Seiche                 3
    shel16t  16  Wildfire                       194
    shel17t  17  Wind                           3030
    shel18t  18  Winter Weather                 2461
    shelsmt      Total damages for each county  3124
    
    
    (Source: National Atlas of the United States)

    State
    The two-character abbreviation for the name of the State or State equivalent in which the county is located. (Source: National Atlas of the United States)

    Formal codeset
    Codeset Name:Codes for the Identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the Outlying Areas of the United States, and Associated Areas; (Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 5-2): Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology.
    Codeset Source:U.S. Department of Commerce

    County
    The name of the county or county equivalent. (Source: National Atlas of the United States)

    Formal codeset
    Codeset Name:Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas; FIPS 6-4: Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology.
    Codeset Source:U.S. Department of Commerce

    Fips
    The 5-digit FIPS code of the county or county equivalent. Codes ending in 000 indicate water areas for which a county designation is not reported. (Source: National Atlas of the United States)

    Formal codeset
    Codeset Name:Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas; FIPS 6-4: Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology.
    Codeset Source:U.S. Department of Commerce

    State_fips
    The 2-digit FIPS code of the State or State equivalent. (Source: National Atlas of the United States)

    Formal codeset
    Codeset Name:Codes for the Identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the Outlying Areas of the United States, and Associated Areas; FIPS 5-2: Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology.
    Codeset Source:U.S. Department of Commerce

    Count
    The total number of occurrences of the hazard event type, for the county. This field is not in the total damages table, shelsmt.dbf. (Source: National Atlas of the United States)

    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:238

    Sum_fatali
    The total number of fatalities related to the hazard event type and officially reported for the county. An individual fatality may be reported in more than one event table and may therefore be double counted in the total damages table. (e.g. Terry, Texas reported both severe storm/thunder storm and wind events. When the values for the county are summed it is not possible to identify the damages, fatalities, and injuries associated with a particular event in the individual tables.)

    In the total damages table, Sum_fatali is the total number of fatalities from all hazard events in the county.

    For events that covered multiple counties, the fatalities were equally divided among the counties (e.g. if 4 counties were affected, then each was given 1/4 of the fatalities). A zero value indicates that there were no official reports of fatalities. (Source: National Atlas of the United States)

    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:348.85

    Sum_injuri
    The total number of injuries related to the hazard event type and officially reported for the county. An individual injury may be reported in more than one event table and may therefore be double counted in the total damages table. (e.g. Terry, Texas reported both severe storm/thunder storm and wind events. When the values for the county are summed it is not possible to identify the damages, fatalities, and injuries associated with a particular event in the individual tables.)

    In the total damages table, Sum_injuri is the total number of injuries from all hazard events in the county.

    For events that covered multiple counties, the injuries were equally divided among the counties (e.g. if 4 counties were affected, then each was given 1/4 of the injuries). A zero value indicates that there were no official reports of injuries. (Source: National Atlas of the United States)

    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:50000.4

    Sum_proper
    The estimated total U.S. dollar cost of property damage related to the event type and reported for the county. The estimates are very conservative should be interpreted as minimum damages. Property damage may be reported in more than one event table and may therefore be double counted in the total damages table. (e.g. Terry, Texas reported both severe storm/thunder storm and wind events. When the values for the county are summed it is not possible to identify the damages, fatalities, and injuries associated with a particular event in the individual tables.)

    In the total damages table, Sum_proper is the total estimated property damage, in U.S. dollars, from all hazard events in the county.

    For events that covered multiple counties, the property damages were equally divided among the counties (e.g. if 4 counties were affected, then each was given 1/4 of the property damage). A zero value indicates that there were no official reports of property damage. The values have not been adjusted for inflation. (Source: National Atlas of the United States)

    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0000
    Maximum:3038854431.5210

    Sum_crop_d
    The estimated total U.S. dollar cost of crop damage related to the event type and reported for the county. The estimates are very conservative should be interpreted as minimum damages. Crop damage may be reported in more than one event table and may therefore be double counted in the total damages table. (e.g. Terry, Texas reported both severe storm/thunder storm and wind events. When the values for the county are summed it is not possible to identify the damages, fatalities, and injuries associated with a particular event in the individual tables.)

    In the total damages table, Sum_crop_d is the total estimated crop damage, in U.S. dollars, from all hazard events in the county.

    For events that covered multiple counties, the crop damages were equally divided among the counties (e.g. if 4 counties were affected, then each was given 1/4 of the crop damage). A zero value indicates that there were no official reports of crop damage. The values have not been adjusted for inflation. (Source: National Atlas of the United States)

    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0000
    Maximum:641616666.6729

    Pd_sqmile
    The estimated total U.S. dollar cost of property damage per square mile. This field only exists in the total damages table, shelsmt.dbf. The total estimated property damage is in U.S. dollars and is for all hazard events in the county. The estimates are very conservative should be interpreted as minimum damages.

    For events that covered multiple counties, the property damages were equally divided among the counties (e.g. if 4 counties were affected, then each was given 1/4 of the property damage). A zero value indicates that there were no official reports of property damage. The values have not been adjusted for inflation. (Source: National Atlas of the United States)

    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0000
    Maximum:13903472.5067


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

    • National Atlas of the United States

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    Gita Urban-Mathieux
    National Atlas of the United States
    12201 Sunrise Valley Dr
    Reston, VA 20192

    703-648-5175 (voice)
    atlasmail@usgs.gov


Why was the data set created?

These data are intended for geographic display and analysis at the national level, and for large regional areas. The data should be displayed and analyzed at scales appropriate for 1:2,000,000-scale data. No responsibility is assumed by the National Atlas of the United States in the use of these data.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

    SHELDUS database (source 1 of 3)
    Hazard Research Lab, University of South Carolina, 200403, SHELDUS Version 2.0: Hazard Research Lab, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.

    Type_of_Source_Media: CD-ROM
    Source_Contribution: Spatial and attribute information

    ATLAS-HazardEvents (source 2 of 3)
    National Atlas of the United States, 200408, Spatial Hazard Events and Losses for the United States, 1995-2000: National Atlas of the United States, Reston, VA.

    Type_of_Source_Media: Online
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 2000000
    Source_Contribution: Spatial and attribute information

    ATLAS-1990CNTY (source 3 of 3)
    National Atlas of the United States, 200411, 1990 County Boundaries of the United States: National Atlas of the United States, Reston, VA.

    Type_of_Source_Media: Online
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 2000000
    Source_Contribution: Attribute information

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: Jul-2004 (process 1 of 2)
    A subset of the SHELDUS database, containing data for 1995-2000 only, was provided on CD-ROM and was loaded in ArcView.

    Data for each event type was extracted from the file and copied into a new event table. No earthquake or volcano events are listed in the SHELDUS database for the years 1995-2000, so no tables were created for those event types. To create the final event tables, the records for each county were combined and the property damages, crop damages, fatalities, and injuries for the county were summed. The tables contain one record for each county that experienced at least one instance of the event type during the years 1995-2000. Counties that did not experience any instances of the event type are not included. Because a single event may be included as more than one event type, the damage, injuries, and fatalities for that event may be double counted. For example, Terry, Texas (Hazard ID=50646 in the source database) reported both severe storm/thunder storm and wind events. When the property damages, crop damages, fatalities, and injuries values are summed, the values for all event types are included even though in some cases two values may represent the same event.

    To create the total damage table, the SHELDUS database records for each county were combined and the fields for property damages, crop damages, fatalities, and injuries were summed.

    The county name, State abbreviation, and State FIPS codes were added to each of the 17 database files.

    Data sources used in this process:

    • SHELDUS

    Data sources produced in this process:

    • ATLAS-HazardEvents

    Date: Nov-2004 (process 2 of 2)
    A field containing property damage per square mile was added to the total damages table, shelsmt.dbf. The square mile information came from ATLAS-1990CNTY.

    Data sources used in this process:

    • ATLAS-HazardEvents
    • ATLAS-1990CNTY

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    This data set includes county-level hazard data for the 50 United States and the District of Columbia. It covers the period from 1995 to 2000.

    For events that covered multiple counties, the dollar losses, fatalities, and injuries were equally divided among the counties (e.g. if 4 counties were affected, then each was given 1/4 of the dollar loss, 1/4 of the injuries, and 1/4 of the deaths.) Where dollar loss estimates were provided in ranges (e.g. $50,000 - 100,000) the lowest value in the range was used.

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    No checks for logical consistency were performed on this data set.


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
None. Acknowledgment of the Hazards Research Lab at the University of South Carolina and (or) the National Atlas of the United States would be appreciated in products derived from these data.

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    Earth Science Information Center, U.S. Geological Survey
    507 National Center
    Reston, VA 20192

    1-888-ASK-USGS (1-888-275-8747) (voice)

    Contact_Instructions:
    In addition to the address above there are other ESIC offices throughout the country. A full list of these offices is at <http://ask.usgs.gov/esic_index.html>.

  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made by the U.S. Geological Survey regarding the utility of the data on any other system, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. No responsibility is assumed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the use of these data.

  4. How can I download or order the data?


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 19-Jun-2006
Metadata author:
Peg Rawson
National Atlas of the United States
12201 Sunrise Valley Dr
Reston, VA 20192

703-648-4183 (voice)
atlasmail@usgs.gov

Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)



 


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